Fiscal year variants in SAP

A financial year is termed as a fiscal year. A fiscal year may or may not be the calendar year depending on the country. Fiscal year variants defined in SAP are:

  • V3 – April to March
  • K4 – January to December
  • V6 – July to June
  • V9 – October to September
any new calendar can also be created, remember to use Z as the first byte of the fiscal year variant.

Business Area – OX03

Business area is an org. unit in which the company codes‘ operations take place.
Business area is NOT assigned to any company code but the business area is given while posting to a company code manually.
SPRO > Enterprise Structure > Definition > Financial Accounting > Define Business Area
For more details on business area, click on the link

Define Enterprise Structure – Steps

Note: BA1, BA2 etc in the picture are business areas. FA1, FA2, etc in the picture are functional areas.
Configuration links – screenshots and Transaction codes are mentioned above, please click on them or open them in a new window.

Assignment of Company Code to Company – OX16

SPRO > Enterprise Structure > Assignment > Financial Accounting > Assign Company Code to Company


In this step, multiple company codes are assigned to the company.

Company codes: company = N: 1


  1. Click position
  2. Enter company code
  3. Enter Company
  4. Save

Create Company Code – OX02

Company code is the central organizational unit used for financial accounting purposes. This is the most important organizational unit in SAP (without which FI cannot be implemented). Every legal entity is created as a company code in SAP. This is the central organizational unit to which all other organizational units of other modules will be assigned.

Examples of dependency to other modules

  • Plants of MM Module assigned to company code
  • Sales organization of SD is assigned to company code
  • Personnel area of HR is assigned to company code
All financial postings in SAP are done with reference to the company code.
SPRO > Enterprise Structure > Definition > Financial Accounting > Define, Copy, Delete, Check Company Code
The smallest organizational unit for which a complete self-contained set of accounts can be drawn up for the purposes of external reporting. The process of external reporting involves recording all relevant transactions and generating all supporting required for financial statements (balance sheets, profit and loss statements and so on.)

Document Splitting

  • New G/L in the SAP ERP system offers a powerful feature known as document splitting
  • With document splitting, accounting line items are split according to specific characteristics – for example – Profit Center, Segment
  • This way, you can create financial statements for entities such as Segments and meet legal requirements- For example, International Accounting Standards (IAS) requirements for segment reporting
IAS 14 relates to segment-level financial reporting. The key objective is to report financial information by lines of business and/or by geographical areas.