1) A document is saved for every posting. Every Document is uniquely identified by the Document Number, Company Code and Fiscal Year.

2) A Document contains Document header + 2 to 999 line items.

3) Document Type : Controls the Document header and classify the business transactions to be posted.

>> Posting Key : Controls the Line items.

4) Document types are defined at client level. Document types define the following:

a) Number ranges for Document number.

b) Account types permitted for postings. And also

c) The field status of “document header Text” and “Reference number” in the Document header.

d) Whether the invoices are posted with net procedure.

5) Standard Document types are :

KR – Vendor Invoice DR – Customer Invoice.

KG – Vendor Cr.Memo. DG – Customer Cr.Memo.

KZ – Vendor Payment DZ – Customer Payment.

AB – General Document SA – G/L a/c posting.

6) Document numbers can have internal or external number assignment.

7) Up to a future fiscal year – Number range will continue irrespective of year end.

For each fiscal year – At the start of a new year the system starts the number assignment again at the start of the number range. (You need to define number range for every new fiscal year)

8) The document number range must not over lap.

9) Document type AB allows postings to all account types.

10) One number range can be assigned to several document types.

11) Posting keys are defined at client level.

12) Posting keys control:

i) On which type of account the line item can be posted to

ii) The item is posted as a Debit or Credit.?

iii) The field status of additional fields.

In addition to this posting key specifies the following:

>> Whether line item is connected to payment transaction or not.

>> Whether posting is sales relevant.

13) Document line item fields are controlled by :

a) G/L Account specific field status group assigned to the G/L account while creating. (Account specific field status groups are summarized under field status variant which is assigned to company code) If the document is posted to a sub ledger a/c, the field status group of the reconciliation a/c is used.

b) Posting key specific field status group.

(The field status HIDE cannot be combined with the field status REQUIRED entry which causes an error.)

14) Document type does not have default posting key or vise versa. For each FI transaction (E.g. Invoice, Credit memo, Out going payment) you can define a document type and default posting key at:

IMG:FI A/cing>F.A.Global Settings>Document>Default values for document processing>Default values.

(E.g. When posting outgoing invoices, you use the document type “DR” and

posting key “01”. You can store these specifications in the system. They

are proposed by the system when you call up the corresponding



  1. Hai Mr.Ananth,

    Thanks for the clear and neat explanation about the document control.Beginners like me, can easily understand the topics in SAP FICO. I am preparing for my SAP FI/CO certification now. So far, completed the dunning,data migration, document control. I am taking private class for my certification. He gave me the material and asked me to study. As a beginner, i feel difficulty in understanding the concept by reading the material. I was browsing for the simple explanation, now i got your website. I feel happy, now i understood the document control in simple words.

    If you dont mind, can you assist me to progress in my studies?. I need to know, from where i should start to read the FI/CO material?. Should, i start to use the software from the beginning itself or should i do it in later time?. Because, in material saying first create a company code. But, now am doing my theory part that too from Dunning, Data migration, document control, posting control and Asset Accounting. I need the simple explanation material for Asset accounting.

    If I get assistance from the SAP expert like you,it will be helpful for me. Looking forward for your valuable reply.

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